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St. Mary's U. Astronomy and Physics Dept.

What crushed this can?




When the can is immersed in the water, the pressure inside the can is lower than the pressure outside




Force on refrigerator acts in 2 directions





Force acts in 2 directions





H. Resolution of Forces - Breaking down a single vector into 2 or more vectors

Drawing Components

St. Mary's HS Physics











Which component is responsible
for making this cart move?





Only horizontal part (Fx)
of applied force



If the angle were increased, how would it change the size of the:


Vertical component?    




Horizontal component?






Ex 1) A car is pulled with a force of 60. N at angle of 37° from the horizontal. Find the vertical and horizontal components of the applied force

Scale: 1 cm = 10 N















Using Trigonometry 



SinӨ =   Opp = Fy
Hyp F



Cross Multiply



Fy = FsinӨ


Fx = FcosӨ


"One size fits all"







Fy = 60. Nsin37°



Fy = 36 N Up



Fx = 60. Ncos37°



Fx = 48 N Right




Check  a2 + b2 = c2



36 N2 + 48 N2= 60 N2



Ex 2) Weight of Cart = 80 N



Horizontal Component
of Weight Force?





O N 


Vertical Component
of Weight Force?




8O N




Horizontal Component

 0 N


Vertical Component

80 N down



Ex 3) A 50. N force at an angle of 80° has its' angle changed to 10.°. 


How will the vertical and horizontal components change?

Angle & Components

St. Mary's HS



Vertical component - smaller
Horizontal component - larger





Ex 4) Parallel & perpendicular components



Free Body Diagram

St. Mary's H.S. Physics





F = 10. N (Weight)






F = 10. N (Weight)




Find the force holding cart on ramp and force that acts down


Force (down ramp) = Fapplied sinӨ = 5.0 N
(on ramp) = Fapplied cosӨ = 8.7 N



Finding a horizontal component



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